Dear Penny: How Do I Save for Retirement on a Teacherâs Salary?
Robin Hartill is a certified financial planner and a senior editor at The Penny Hoarder. Send your tricky money questions to AskPenny@thepennyhoarder.com.
The unfortunate reality is that a lot of workers are forced to retire early for a host of reasons. They lose their jobs, or they have to stop for health reasons or to care for a family member. So itâs essential to have a Plan B should you need to leave the workforce earlier than youâd hoped.
How much money should I be saving to be able to retire in my 70s? Where should I invest that money?
I like that youâre already planning to work longer to make up for a late start. But hereâs my nagging concern: What if you canât work into your 70s?
If you maxed out your contributions under the current limits by investing 3 a month and earn 7% returns, youâd have 5,000 after 15 years. Do that for 20 years and youâd have a little more than 0,000. The benefit to saving in a Roth IRA is that the money will be tax-free when you retire.
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You still have 20 years to build your nest egg if all goes as planned. Sure, youâve missed out on the extra years of compounding youâd have gotten had you accumulated substantial savings in your 20s and 30s. But thatâs not uncommon. Iâve gotten plenty of letters from people in their 50s or 60s with nothing saved who are asking how they can retire next year.
I hate even suggesting that. Anyone who teaches middle school truly deserves their time off. But unfortunately, I canât change the fact that we underpay teachers. I want a solution for you that doesnât involve working forever. That may mean you have to work more now.
Perhaps I can be more helpful if we work backward here. Instead of talking about how much you need to save, letâs talk about how much you need to retire. You can set savings goals from there.
Choosing what to invest in doesnât need to be complicated. If you open an IRA through a major brokerage, they can use algorithms to automatically invest your money based on your age and when you want to retire.
The traditional rule of thumb is that you want to limit your retirement withdrawals to 4% each year to avoid outliving your savings. But that rule assumes youâll be retired for 30 years. Of course, the longer you work and avoid tapping into your savings, the more you can withdraw later on.
Iâm 51 years old and donât have a large nest egg. Iâm a single parent with three kids. Iâm a second career middle school teacher, so there is not a lot of money left over each month.Â
Retirement planning naturally comes with a ton of uncertainty. But since I donât know what you earn, whether you have debt or how much you have saved, Iâm going to have to respond to your question about how much to save with the vague and unsatisfying answer of: âAs much as you can.â
For the average worker, Social Security benefits will replace about 40% of income. If youâre able to work for another two decades and get your maximum benefit at age 70, you can probably count on your benefit replacing substantially more. Your benefit will be up to 76% higher if you can delay until youâre 70 instead of claiming as early as possible at 62. That can make an enormous difference when youâre lacking in savings.
If you have a retirement plan through your job with an employer match, getting that full contribution is your No. 1 goal. Once youâve done that, try to max out your Roth IRA contribution. Since youâre over 50, you can contribute ,000 in 2021, but for people younger than 50, the limit is ,000.
By now youâre probably asking: How am I supposed to do all that as a single mom with a teacherâs salary? It pains me to say this, but yours may be a situation where even the most extreme budgeting isnât enough to make your paycheck stretch as far as it needs to go. You may need to look at ways to earn additional income. Could you use the summertime or at least one weekend day each week to make extra money? Some teachers earn extra money by doing online tutoring or teaching English as a second language virtually, for example.
But since a Plan B is essential here, letâs only assume that your Social Security benefits will provide 40%. So you need at least enough savings to cover 30%.
The standard advice is that you need to replace about 70% to 80% of your pre-retirement income. Of course, if you can retire without a mortgage or any other debt, you could err on the lower side â perhaps even less.